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Ethoxylates of aliphatic alcohols (>C6): Human health tier II assessment

28 June 2019

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Chemicals in this assessment

Chemical Name in the Inventory CAS Number
Ethanol, 2-[2-(hexyloxy)ethoxy]- 112-59-4
Ethanol, 2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]- 3055-93-4
Ethanol, 2-[2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]- 3055-94-5
3,6,9,12,15-Pentaoxaheptacosan-1-ol 3055-95-6
3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol 3055-97-8
Ethanol, 2-(dodecyloxy)- 4536-30-5
3,6,9,12-Tetraoxatetracosan-1-ol 5274-68-0
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-9-octadecenyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 25190-05-0
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, mixture with .alpha.-octadecyl-.omega.-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) 8065-80-3
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl ), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, mixture with (Z)-.alpha.-9-octadecenyl-.omega.-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) 8065-81-4
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-dodecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 9002-92-0
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 9004-95-9
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-(9Z)-9-octadecen-1-yl-.omega.-hydroxy- 9004-98-2
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-octadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 9005-00-9
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isotridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 9043-30-5
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 31726-34-8
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 24938-91-8
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-decyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 26183-52-8
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-(2-ethylhexyl)-.omega.-hydroxy- 26468-86-0
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-octyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 27252-75-1
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tetradecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 27306-79-2
1-Octadecanol, polymer with ethylene oxide 31943-12-1
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-(2-octyldodecyl)-omega-hydroxy- 32128-65-7
Alcohol, straight chain, modified polyethoxylate 37281-47-3
9-Octadecen-1-ol, (Z)-, polymer with oxirane 37702-39-9
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-nonyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 39587-22-9
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isooctadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 52292-17-8
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isooctyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 61723-78-2
Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated 68439-45-2
Alcohols, C9-11, ethoxylated 68439-46-3
Alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated 68439-49-6
Alcohols, C12-14, ethoxylated 68439-50-9
Alcohols, C11-13-branched, ethoxylated 68439-54-3
Alcohols, coco, ethoxylated 61791-13-7
Alcohols, tallow, ethoxylated 61791-28-4
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isodecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 61827-42-7
Alcohols, C13-15, ethoxylated 64425-86-1
Alcohols, C12-13, ethoxylated 66455-14-9
Alcohols, C10-14, ethoxylated 66455-15-0
Alcohols, C16-22, ethoxylated 69227-20-9
Alcohols, C10-12, ethoxylated 67254-71-1
Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated 68002-97-1
Alcohols, C12-15, ethoxylated 68131-39-5
Alcohols, C11-15-secondary, ethoxylated 68131-40-8
Alcohols, C16 and C18-unsaturated, ethoxylated 68155-01-1
Alcohols, C12-18, ethoxylated 68213-23-0
Alcohols, C12-20, ethoxylated 68526-94-3
Alcohols, C12-16, ethoxylated 68551-12-2
Alcohols, C>30, ethoxylated 97953-22-5
Alcohols, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, ethoxylated 68920-66-1
Alcohols, C7-21, ethoxylated 68991-48-0
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, branched 69011-36-5
Alcohols, C8-22, ethoxylated 69013-19-0
Alcohols, C6-10, ethoxylated 70879-83-3
Alcohols, C8-10, ethoxylated 71060-57-6
Alcohols, C8-16, ethoxylated 71243-46-4
Alcohols, C9-11-iso-, C10 rich, ethoxylated 78330-20-8
Alcohols, C11-14-iso-, C13 rich, ethoxylated 78330-21-9
Alcohols, C12-C14-secondary, ethoxylated 84133-50-6
Alcohols, C10-18, ethoxylated 85422-93-1
Alcohols, C12-20 and C12-20-unsaturated, ethoxylated 106232-81-9
Alcohols, C16-20, ethoxylated 106232-82-0
Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear, ethoxylated 106232-83-1
Alcohols, C18-22-alkyl, ethoxylated 116810-32-3
Alcohols, C14-15-branched and linear, ethoxylated 120944-68-5
Alcohols, C10-12-secondary, ethoxylated 125736-52-9
Alcohols, C14-18 and C16-18-unsaturated, ethoxylated 126646-02-4
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-undecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-,branched and linear 127036-24-2
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isohexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- 69364-63-2

Preface

This assessment was carried out by staff of the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) using the Inventory Multi-tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP) framework.

The IMAP framework addresses the human health and environmental impacts of previously unassessed industrial chemicals listed on the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances (the Inventory).

The framework was developed with significant input from stakeholders and provides a more rapid, flexible and transparent approach for the assessment of chemicals listed on the Inventory.

Stage One of the implementation of this framework, which lasted four years from 1 July 2012, examined 3000 chemicals meeting characteristics identified by stakeholders as needing priority assessment. This included chemicals for which NICNAS already held exposure information, chemicals identified as a concern or for which regulatory action had been taken overseas, and chemicals detected in international studies analysing chemicals present in babies’ umbilical cord blood.

Stage Two of IMAP began in July 2016. We are continuing to assess chemicals on the Inventory, including chemicals identified as a concern for which action has been taken overseas and chemicals that can be rapidly identified and assessed by using Stage One information. We are also continuing to publish information for chemicals on the Inventory that pose a low risk to human health or the environment or both. This work provides efficiencies and enables us to identify higher risk chemicals requiring assessment.

The IMAP framework is a science and risk-based model designed to align the assessment effort with the human health and environmental impacts of chemicals. It has three tiers of assessment, with the assessment effort increasing with each tier. The Tier I assessment is a high throughput approach using tabulated electronic data. The Tier II assessment is an evaluation of risk on a substance-by-substance or chemical category-by-category basis. Tier III assessments are conducted to address specific concerns that could not be resolved during the Tier II assessment.

These assessments are carried out by staff employed by the Australian Government Department of Health and the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy. The human health and environment risk assessments are conducted and published separately, using information available at the time, and may be undertaken at different tiers.

This chemical or group of chemicals are being assessed at Tier II because the Tier I assessment indicated that it needed further investigation.

For more detail on this program please visit:www.nicnas.gov.au

Disclaimer

NICNAS has made every effort to assure the quality of information available in this report. However, before relying on it for a specific purpose, users should obtain advice relevant to their particular circumstances. This report has been prepared by NICNAS using a range of sources, including information from databases maintained by third parties, which include data supplied by industry. NICNAS has not verified and cannot guarantee the correctness of all information obtained from those databases. Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of this information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner. NICNAS does not take any responsibility whatsoever for any copyright or other infringements that may be caused by using this information.

Grouping Rationale

This assessment replaces previous assessments for ethoxylates of aliphatic alcohols (C =6) or alcohol ethoxylates (AEs). It is conducted in conjunction with the other IMAP Human Health Tier II assessments for mixed alkoxylates and propoxylates of aliphatic alcohols (C =6) (NICNASa; NICNASb). Three assessments in this series are based on the analogue and chain-length category approach (OECD, 2014), including structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of these chemicals and their physiochemical, toxicokinetic and toxicological profiles. The SAR information available for AEs is specified where applicable.

Although most AEs in this group are polymers according to the definition in the National Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act (1989), the individual members do not necessarily meet the criteria for polymers of low concern (please refer to NICNAS PLC criteria available at nicnas.gov.au), based on molecular weight (MW).

These AE polymers share similar uses as nonionic surfactants in cosmetic, domestic and commercial products, including in laundry detergents, household and industrial cleaners (see Import, Manufacture & Use section).

The AEs in this assessment are structurally related, where the hydrophilic ethylene oxide (EO) chain is attached via an ether linkage to the hydrophobic aliphatic alcohol chain (C =6). The alkyl chain can be linear, branched, saturated or unsaturated in the AE group. Ethoxylated shorter chain alcohols (C <6) do not show the same degree of surface activity compared with longer chains, and hence they are not included in this assessment.

A generic structural formula of the AE is shown below:

H–(CH2)x–y–(OCH2CH2)n–OH

where  n = average number of ethylene oxide (EO) units

        x–y = range of carbon units (C =6)

A simpler notation of ‘Cx–yEOn’ will be used to represent the corresponding AEs in this assessment.

Generally, increasing the carbon chain length increases lipophilicity, whereas increasing alkoxylation increases hydrophilicity of the chemical. These trends are consistent across the linear, branched, saturated or unsaturated AEs of varying alkyl chain lengths and ethoxylation degrees (Lindner, 2010). It was demonstrated that branching of the AEs had a relatively minor impact on calculated partition coefficients (Kow), and hence their biological properties (Lindner, 2010). Further, for unsaturated AEs, as the point of unsaturation is generally remote from the carbon where the EO chain is attached, they are expected to have similar physiochemical properties to saturated AEs.

The AEs in this assessment have been shown to have similarities or trends in their toxicokinetic and toxicological profiles, although the alkyl chain length (whether linear, branched, saturated or unsaturated) and ethoxylation degree vary (see Health Hazard Information section). For this AE group, SARs were reported between the degree of ethoxylation and the acute toxicity (direct) and skin irritation (inverse).

On the basis of the analogue and chain-length category approach (i.e. by considering similarities and trends in molecular structure, physiochemical properties (Kow), uses, and hazard profiles), the AEs in this assessment are qualified to be assessed as a group. Based on such trend analyses, the available datasets for AEs ranging from C6–C18 and EO3–EO12 were considered representative of the AE category for filling data gaps (HERA, 2009; Lindner, 2010). Available data for any AEs will be applicable to group members where data are incomplete or unavailable, such as for ethoxylates of coco, tallow, and C >20 alcohols.

Overall, AEs are not expected to be systemically toxic, although some short chain ethylene glycol ethers, e.g. methyl and ethyl homologues are of concern for a range of adverse health effects. They include skin and eye irritation, liver and kidney damage, bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS) depression, testicular atrophy, developmental toxicity, and immunotoxicity. For higher propyl and butyl homologues, the toxicity involves haemolysis (anaemia) with secondary effects relating to haemosiderin accumulation in the spleen, liver and kidney, and compensatory haematopoiesis in the bone marrow. Systemic toxicity was shown to decrease with increasing alkyl chain lengths and/or alkoxylation degrees (ECETOC, 2005; US EPA, 2010). The chemicals ethylene glycol hexyl ether (with a longer alkyl chain length, CAS No. 112-25-4) and diethylene glycol butyl ether (with a higher ethoxylation degree, CAS No. 112-34-5) have no evidence of systemic effects including haemolysis (ECETOC, 2005; NICNASc).

Commercially available AEs are mixtures of homologues of varying carbon chain lengths and it is possible that some of the chemicals with an average alkyl chain length C =6  may also contain shorter alkyl chains  C <6. It is not practical to quantify the proportion of shorter C <6 chain lengths present in such chemicals, or these shorter chain lengths may not be present at all. The available data suggest a lack of systemic toxicity for the AE chemicals with potential short alkyl chain presence; therefore, the toxicity of the chemicals in this assessment is unlikely to be significantly affected by the presence of shorter chain alkyl groups.

Australian

The Australian industrial uses below were reported under previous mandatory and voluntary calls for information.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) isocetyl ether (CAS No. 69364-63-2) has reported cosmetic uses in leave on and rinse off products.

The following chemicals have reported domestic uses as cleaning and washing agents, and additives:

  • alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68002-97-1)
  • alcohols, C12-15, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68131-39-5)

The following chemicals have reported domestic and commercial uses:

Pigment dispersers or emulsifiers in paints (up to 0.2 %) and tinctures (up to 3 %)

  • alcohols, C11-14-iso-, C13 rich, ethoxylated (CAS No. 78330-21-9)
  • alcohols, C11-15-secondary, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68131-40-8)
  • alcohols, C12-C14-secondary, ethoxylated (CAS No. 84133-50-6)
  • dodecan-1-ol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 9002-92-0)
  • isotridecanol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 69011-36-5)
  • alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-49-6)
  • alcohols, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68920-66-1)
  • (Z)-9-octadecen-1-ol ethoxylated (CAS No. 9004-98-2).

Adhesives, sealants and cleaning products

  • alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-45-2)
  • alcohols, C9-11, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-49-6)
  • alcohols, C12-C14-secondary, ethoxylated (CAS No. 84133-50-6)
  • alcohols, C12-18, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68213-23-0)

Coatings

  • alcohols, C12-C14-secondary, ethoxylated (CAS No. 84133-50-6)
  • octadecan-1-ol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 9005-00-9)

Automotive aftermarket products including waxes and rubbing compounds

  • alcohols, C9-11-iso-, C10 rich, ethoxylated (CAS No. 78330-21-9)
  • dodecan-1-ol, ethoxylated (CAS No. 9002-92-0)
  • alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-49-6)

The chemical PEG isodecyl ether (CAS No. 61827-42-7) has reported commercial use as a lubricant and additive.

No specific Australian use, import, or manufacturing information has been identified for other chemicals.

International

The following international uses have been identified through the European Union (EU) Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) dossiers; Galleria Chemica; the European Commission Cosmetic Ingredients and Substances (CosIng) database; Substances in Preparations in Nordic Countries (SPIN) database; the United States (US) National Library of Medicine Household Products Database; United States (US) Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) dictionary; and other international assessments (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012) .

The chemicals have reported use as nonionic surfactants. Generally, chemicals with fewer ethoxylate units function as emulsifying agents and, as the number of units increases, they function as solubilising or cleansing agents (CIR, 2012).

Some of the chemicals have additional functions as emulsion stabilisers, fragrance or skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products.

Most AEs have reported cosmetic uses in:

  • rinse off (=32 %) and leave on (=25 %)  products
  • odour agents

Some of the chemicals have reported cosmetic uses in baby products (CIR 2012). The concentration used in these products ranges from 0.03 to 4 %.

The chemicals have reported domestic uses in:

  • cleaning and washing agents (up to 50 %)
  • hard surface cleaners (up to 40 %)
  • colouring agents
  • paints, lacquers and varnishes
  • preservatives
  • softeners

The chemicals have reported commercial uses in:

  • cutting fluids
  • process regulators

The chemicals have reported site-limited uses as complexing and flocculating agents.

Some of the chemicals have reported non-industrial uses in:

  • pesticides
  • food additives
  • pharmaceuticals

Australian

The chemicals in this group are synthesised through processes which may result in 1,4-dioxane as an impurity. This impurity (listed under dioxane) is controlled through the Poisons Standard (the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP)) in Schedule 6, with schedule labelling requirements applying above 100 ppm in Appendix G (SUSMP October 2019).

International

No known restrictions have been identified.

Existing Worker Health and Safety Controls

Hazard Classification

The following chemicals:

  • alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-45-2)
  • poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isodecyl-.omega.-hydroxy- (CAS No. 61827-42-7)
  • alcohols, C12-13, ethoxylated (CAS No. 66455-14-9)
  • alcohols, C12-14, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68439-50-9)
  • alcohols, C12-15, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68131-39-5)
  • alcohols, C12-18, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68213-23-0)
  • alcohols, C12-16, ethoxylated (CAS No. 68551-12-2)
  • alcohols, C13-15, ethoxylated (CAS No. 64425-86-1)

are classified as hazardous on the Hazardous Chemicals Information System (HCIS), with the hazard categories and hazard statements for human health (Safe Work Australia):

  • Acute Toxicity – Category 4; H302 (Harmful if swallowed)
  • Skin Irritation – Category 2; H315 (Causes skin irritation)
  • Eye Damage – Category 1; H318 (Causes serious eye damage)

The chemical ethanol, 2-[2-(hexyloxy)ethoxy]- (CAS No. 112-59-4) is listed on the HCIS with the following human health hazard categories and statements:

  • Acute Toxicity – Category 4; H302 (Harmful if swallowed)
  • Eye Damage – Category 1; H318 (Causes serious eye damage)

The chemical poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-isohexadecyl-omega-hydroxy- (CAS No. 69364-63-2) is listed on the HCIS with the following human health hazard categories and statements:

  • Skin Irritation – Category 2; H315 (Causes skin irritation)
  • Eye Irritation – Category 2B; H320 (Causes eye irritation)
Australian

No specific exposure standards are available.

International

No specific exposure standards are available.

The AEs in this group contain two defining substructures, the hydrophobic alcohol derived alkyl chain moiety and the hydrophilic ethoxylate chain moiety. Chemicals with the same generic CAS number may include a range of ethoxylation degrees and properties, which may affect the toxicological properties. Where the average number of EO units was stated in a study, this is noted.

Overall, AEs are not expected to be systemically toxic (refer to Grouping Rationale section). The available datasets for AEs ranging from C6–C18 and EO3–EO12 were considered representative of the AE category.

Toxicokinetics

Based on the animal and human data available for AEs with C12–C15 and EO3–EO10, the AEs in this assessment (whether linear, branched, saturated or unsaturated) are expected to be absorbed, metabolised and excreted in the urine, faeces and in expired air with minimal tissue distribution, following oral and parental exposure. Excretion following dermal absorption is primarily via the urine.

Oral absorption was rapid and extensive (>75 %) while dermal absorption was slow and incomplete with a lower penetration rate for human skin than for rat skin. The AEs with shorter alkyl and/or EO chains (or smaller MW) are expected to more readily absorbed (orally and dermally) than longer ones (or larger MW). Some AEs may enhance penetration of other ingredients through the skin due to their surfactant properties. The overall distribution and excretion were similar across AEs, regardless of their chain lengths. Metabolism is predicted to comprise hydrolysis of the ether linkage followed by oxidation of the alkyl chain to form lower molecular weight PEG-like compounds, and ultimately carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, although no metabolic studies were available. Metabolism was found to correlate to the chemical chain lengths, resulting in a higher proportion excreted in expired air (with longer alkyl chains) and/or in the faeces (with longer ethoxylate chains) and less in the urine (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012; CIR, 2016).

In rats:

The chemicals C12EO3, C12EO6 and C12EO10 were completely absorbed (~100 %) and excreted (~95 %) with minimal tissue distribution (~5 %) 4 days after oral, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous exposure. Recovery of 14C was largely in the urine as polar metabolites (no parent compound), with small proportions present in the faeces and in expired air (14CO2). An increased proportion of faecal 14C for AEs with longer EO chains suggests biliary excretion. Dermal absorption of AEs occurred more readily with shorter EO chains than longer ones (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of C13EO6 (branched) and C15EO7 (branched) versus C12EO6 (linear) were comparable. Recovery was predominately in the urine (52–55 %) and smaller amounts in the faeces (23–27 %) and expired CO2 (2–3 %) (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

For a longer AE C14–18EO10 (linear), excretion was almost equally split between the urine and faeces (~40–50 %) and similar to shorter AEs in the air (2 %), 72 hours after oral exposure, regardless of dose. Distribution to the liver and kidney was low (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

For C12–15EO6 and C12–15EO7, oral absorption was rapid and extensive (>75 %) while dermal absorption was slow and incomplete (~50 %) after 72 hours. Excretion and distribution were similar to the AEs above (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

In another study, dermal absorption of AEs with short chains (C8–C14 and EO3–EO7) was more rapid than with longer chains (>C14 and >EO7) (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

In humans:

The 2 chemicals, C12EO6 (linear) and C13EO6 (branched) were readily absorbed, metabolised and rapidly excreted in the urine (75 %), faeces (5 %) and expired air (4 %) within 24 hours of a single oral dosing. The chemicals were not bioaccumulative in the body with the blood levels of <1 % of the administered dose. This toxicokinetic profile is comparable with those of the rat, including the increasing metabolism into expired air with longer alkyl chain lengths (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

Absorption of C12EO6 through human skin occurred less readily than through rat skin. Distribution was barely detectable and excretion was mainly via the urine (1.82 % of the administered dose after 144 hours) (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

Oral

Some of the AEs in this group are currently classified with hazard category ‘Acute Toxicity – Category 4’ and hazard statement ‘H302 Harmful if swallowed’ in the HCIS (refer to the Existing Work Health and Safety Controls section). Based on the available animal data and international reviews, the AEs in this group are expected to have low to moderate acute oral toxicity. The toxicity appears to correlate with the degree of ethoxylation (highest for EO5–EO14) and is unlikely to be greatly affected by the alkyl chain length (HERA, 2009; REACHa-h). Unless data for the specific chemical are available to indicate otherwise, moderate acute oral toxicity cannot be ruled out and hazard classification is recommended for the remaining chemicals in this group  (refer to the Recommendation section).

The oral median lethal dose (LD50) values in rats ranged from 600 mg/kg bw (C15–16EO10, C14–15EO11) to 10000 mg/kg bw (CxEO1–3, CxEO>15). The discrepancy in study results was attributable to variations in EO chain lengths and study designs. No relationship between the alkyl chain length and acute oral toxicity was observed (HERA, 2009).

At necropsy, congestion of the lung, liver and kidney, haemorrhage of the gastric mucosa, and gastrointestinal irritation (e.g. stomach ulcerations) were observed, particularly after administration of a bolus dose or undiluted chemicals (HERA, 2009).

Dermal

Based on the available data, the AEs in this group are expected to have low acute dermal toxicity. No structural relationship was evident between the AEs and acute dermal toxicity.

In rabbits, the dermal LD50s were between 2000 to 5000 mg/kg bw. In rats, the dermal LD50 values ranged from >800 mg/kg bw (C13–15EO10, C13–15EO11) to >5000 mg/kg bw. At necropsy, haemorrhage of subcutaneous tissues and hyperaemia of the small intestine were observed (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

At high doses (>16000 mg/kg bw after a 24-hour dermal application), AEs caused severe skin irritation, ataxia and lung lesions in rabbits (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

Inhalation

Based on the available data, the AEs in this group are expected to have low acute inhalation toxicity.

In a study compliant with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity), a single static 6-hour exposure to substantially saturated vapour (131.58 ppm) of C6EO2 (CAS No. 112-59-4) resulted in no mortality or other signs of toxicity in rats (REACHa).

In a non-guideline study, a median lethal concentration (LC50) of greater than 0.22 mg/L was reported for C9–11EO5 following 4-hour inhalation as a mist in rats. Other studies reported LC50 values from 1.5 to 20.7 mg/L, indicating that acute toxic thresholds were reached when rats were exposed to undiluted AEs in the form of respirable mists or aerosols, or at concentrations exceeding the saturated vapour pressure in air. At necropsy, corneal opacity, congestion and mottling of the lung, liver and kidney and adrenals were observed (HERA, 2009).

Respiratory Irritation

Inhalation of droplets and/or particles (aerodynamic diameters <10 µm) released from the aerosolised products of these surfactant chemicals may cause respiratory irritation and consequent damage to the lung through prolonged or repeated exposure (NICNASa).

Skin Irritation

Some of the AEs in this group are currently classified with hazard category ‘Skin Irritation – Category 2’ and hazard statement ‘H315 Causes skin irritation’ in the HCIS (refer to the Existing Work Health and Safety Controls section). Based on the available data, this hazard classification is recommended for the remaining chemicals in the group (unless data for the specific chemical are available to indicate otherwise) (refer to the Recommendation section).

Overall, the degree of irritation was reported to be dependent on the type of patch (open vs vs semi-occluded vs occluded), exposure time (4 hours to 4 weeks), single vs repeated applications, and the concentration used. The chemicals were moderately to severely irritating at 100 %, slightly to moderately irritating at 10 %, mildly irritating at 1 %, and non-irritating at 0.1–0.5 %. The severity of irritation appears to inversely correlate with the degree of ethoxylation (i.e. more severe irritation for lower ethoxylation EO1–EO3) and is unlikely to be greatly affected by the alkyl chain length (HERA, 2009).

In a number of OECD TG 404 (Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion) compliant tests, AEs of varying chain lengths were applied undiluted to intact rabbit skin for 4 hours under fully occluded conditions. The chemicals ranged from slightly irritating (C11EO9, C12–14EO15, C13EO20), moderately irritating (C12–14EO10, C13EO6, C13EO5–6.5) to extremely irritating (C12–14EO6, C12–14EO3, C13EO3). The skin reactions from slightly irritating chemicals reversed by 6 days after exposure, and those from moderately to severely irritating chemicals persisted up to 14 days of the observation period. The data suggest a possible trend between irritation and degree of ethoxylation, i.e. AEs with lower EO units are likely more irritating than those with higher number of EO units (HERA, 2009).

After 24-hour occlusive application, the following AEs (undiluted) were moderately to severely irritating. For the same C12–13 alkyl length, AEs with EO3 were severely irritating while those with EO7 were mildly to severely irritating. Dilutions of these AEs were slightly to moderately irritating at 10 %, slightly irritating at 1 %, and minimally to non-irritating at 0.1 % (CIR, 2012):

CAS No. 68439-46-3 (C9–11EO5–8)

CAS No. 66455-14-9 (C12–13EO7)

CAS No. 68131-39-5 (C12–15EO7–9)

CAS No. 68951-67-7 (C14–15EO7–13; not listed on the Inventory)

Dilutions (1–10 %) of C9–11EO8, C12–15EO7, and C14–15EO7–18 caused mild to severe irritation in guinea pigs and rabbits after repeated application (5 times a week) over 4 and a half weeks (HERA, 2009).

Eye Irritation

Some of the AEs in this group are currently classified with hazard category ‘Eye Damage – Category 1’ and hazard statement ‘H318 Causes serious eye damage’ in the HCIS (refer to the Existing Work Health and Safety Controls section). Based on the available data, this hazard classification is recommended for the remaining chemicals in the group (unless data are available for the specific chemical to indicate otherwise) (refer to the Recommendation section).

In summary, undiluted AEs caused moderate to severe eye irritation in rabbits. The chemicals were also reported to be slightly to moderately irritating at 1–10 % and non-irritating at 0.1 %. The severity of irritation was considered concentration-dependent and appears not to correlate with ethoxylation or alkyl chain length of the AEs. Rinsing the eye immediately after application of some AEs with tap water for 20–30 seconds reduced the severity of the effects.

In a number of OECD TG 405 and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) compliant tests, the majority of undiluted AEs covering the range of C9–C19 and EO2.5–EO15 resulted in Draize eye irritation index (EII) scores of >25 to 50, and were considered moderately to severely irritating. Some chemicals caused irreversible damage to the eye, i.e. conjunctivitis and corneal opacity which persisted to the end of the observation period of 21 days. Vascularisation of the cornea was observed following exposure to undiluted AEs (C7–9EO6 and C14–15EO11; both not listed on the Inventory). Other AEs (C12–13EO2, C7–9EO12, and C14–15EO7) have reported EII scores between 0.5 and 15 (mildly irritating). Thus, there is no clear pattern between the eye irritant responses versus the alkyl or EO chain lengths. Other tests demonstrated that the irritancy of the chemicals (covering the range of C9–C18 and EO3–EO20) could be reduced by rinsing the eye immediately after instillation. Concentrations of 0.1 % were non-irritating and between 1–10 % were slightly to moderately irritating (HERA, 2009).

Similar results were reported from Draize tests in albino and New Zealand White rabbits, which covered the range of C9–C15 and EO1–EO18. These chemicals (CAS No. 68439-46-3, 66455-14-9, 68131-39-5 (group members) and 68951-67-7 (not on the Inventory) were severely to extremely irritating when tested undiluted and without rinsing, slightly to moderately irritating at 10 %, and non-irritating to mildly irritating at 0.1–1 % (CIR, 2012).

Observation in humans

Undiluted AEs (covering the range of C11–C18 and EO3–EO20) were reported to cause mild skin irritation in a number of standard human occlusive patch tests (4–24 hours). In some cases, mild erythema was observed and cleared within 72 hours (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

In a human sensitisation test, the chemical C12–13EO6.5 showed an increased cumulative irritation response compared to AEs with a higher degree of ethoxylation, e.g. C12–15EO12 (HERA, 2009).

Skin Sensitisation

Based on available data, the AEs in this group are not considered skin sensitisers.

Overall, AEs showed no evidence of skin sensitisation, based on 25 guinea pig maximisation tests (covering the range of C9 to C21 and EO2 to EO21), 13 non-adjuvant Buehler tests (covering the range of C9 to C15 and EO3 to EO13), and local lymph node assay (LLNA) (available for C6EO2, CAS No. 112-59-4). Most of the studies were scientifically well-conducted, and some were compliant with the OECD TG and GLP (HERA, 2009; REACHa; REACHb; REACHc; REACHe; REACHf; REACHg; REACHh).

Observation in humans

The chemicals were not skin sensitisers when tested under clinical settings.

A number of AEs of varying chain lengths, e.g. C12–C18 and EO2–EO23 (including C12–13EO6.5 (CAS No. 66455-14-9) and C12–15EO7–12 (CAS No. 68131-39-5), C12EO9 in aerosol cream and C12EO2), all tested negative in human repeated insult patch tests (HRIPTs). Induction concentrations were mostly between 1–25 %. In similar experiments, neither irritation nor sensitisation were reported for C18EO2, C18EO10 and C18EO20 at concentrations up to 60 % (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

Oral

Based on the available data, the chemicals in this group are not expected to cause serious damage to health from repeated oral exposure. No correlation with ethoxylation or alkyl chain length of the AEs was noted for repeated dose oral toxicity.

In several 90-day feeding studies in rats (similar to OECD TG 408), the reported NOAELs were between 50 and 700 mg/kg bw/day for group members (covering the range of C9–C18 and EO5–EO10). Effects observed at higher concentrations included reduced mean body weights and increases in relative liver, kidney and heart weights (SCCS, 2007; HERA 2009; CIR, 2012).

Similar effects were seen in longer-term 2-year feeding studies in rats. The NOAEL for the AEs CAS No. 66455-14-9 (C12–13EO6.5 group member) and CAS No. 68951-67-7 (C14–15EO7 not listed on the Inventory) were between 50 and 190 (females) mg/kg bw/day (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

Repeated oral or inhalation exposure to certain short chain ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs), such as 2-butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol butyl ether, EGBE, CAS No. 111-76- 2) and its acetate (EGBEA, CAS No. 112-07-2), may cause haemolytic effects in rodents and effects on the liver, spleen and kidney. However, humans appear to be the least sensitive species for haemolytic effects (NICNAS, 1996; NICNASc; OECD, 2004; ECETOC, 2005). The AEs in this assessment are not expected to share these mechanisms of toxicity. Therefore, exposure to these AEs is not expected to cause haemolysis and associated organ toxicity in humans.

Dermal

Based on the available data, the chemicals in this group are not expected to cause serious damage to health (apart from local effects) from repeated dermal exposure. No correlation with ethoxylation or alkyl chain length of the AEs was found for repeated dose dermal toxicity.

In a well-reported OECD TG 411 (Subchronic 90-day Dermal Toxicity) study, Fischer rats were exposed to C9–11EO6 (CAS No. 68439-46-3) at 1, 10 or 25 % concentrations, 3 days/week. The application site was shaved and not covered. Dry, flaky skin and irritation (epidermal thickening with hyperkeratosis) were observed at >10 %. Relative kidney weights without histological lesions increased in both sexes at 25 %. The NOAEL was established at 10 %, equivalent to 80 mg/kg bw/day (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

In an 18-month study, C12–13EO6.5 was applied to the back of Swiss mice 3 days/week. There were no treatment-related systemic lesions at up to 270 mg/kg bw/day. No further study information was available (HERA, 2009).

Inhalation

No data are available.

Genotoxicity

Based on the data available, the chemicals in this group are not considered mutagenic or genotoxic.

A broad spectrum of AEs (covering the range of C7–C22 and EO2–EO20) tested negative in multiple in vitro and in vivo tests (OECD and GLP compliant) for gene mutation and clastogenicity.

In vitro, negative results were reported in bacterial reverse mutation tests in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA104, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538) and Escherichia coli (strains WP2 and WP2 uvrA pKM101), with or without metabolic activation. Negative results were also reported in chromosomal aberration tests (Chinese hamster lung V79, Chinese hamster ovary, and rat liver cells) and gene mutation tests (mouse lymphoma cells) (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

In vivo, AEs (C12–C15 and EO3–EO9) did not induce chromosomal damage in Chinese hamster or Tunstall Wistar rat bone marrow cells after acute oral doses between 250 and 3400 mg/kg bw (SCCP, 2007; HERA, 2009).

Carcinogenicity

Based on the available data, chemicals in this group are not considered carcinogenic.

Two AEs, CAS No. 66455-14-9 (C12–13EO6.5, group chemical) and CAS No. 68951-67-7 (C14–15EO7, not listed on the Inventory), were administered at up to 1 % in the diet to rats for 1–2 years. No treatment-related histopathological effect or increased tumour incidence were observed (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

There was no treatment-related lesions in mice, following 18-month dermal application of C12–13EO6.5 (HERA, 2009).

The AEs are synthesised through processes which may result in 1,4-dioxane as an impurity. This impurity is classified as a Carcinogen—Category 2 (H351 Suspected of causing cancer). There are restrictions on the levels of this chemical in preparations available to consumers in Australia (SUSMP).

Based on the data available, the chemicals of this group are not considered to cause reproductive or developmental toxicity. The oral NOAELs were determined at 250 mg/kg bw/day for reproductive toxicity, and >50 mg/kg bw/day for maternal and developmental toxicity.

In a 2-generation study, the chemical C14–15EO7 was administered in the diet of Charles River CD rats (25/sex/group, at doses of 0, 25, 50 or 250 mg/kg bw/day). The NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was established as 250 mg/kg bw/day (or 0.5 % in diet), given no treatment related effects on fertility, gestation or viability index at this highest tested dose. The NOAEL for maternal and developmental toxicity was established as 50 mg/kg bw/day, based on reduced maternal and pup body weights and increased relative liver weights in both F1 (males and females) and F2 (males) generations at 250 mg/kg bw/day (HERA 2009; CIR, 2012).

In a 2-generation study protocol using a different AE (C12EO6), the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was set at the highest tested dose of 250 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAELs for parental (F0) and developmental toxicity were also 50 mg/kg bw/day, based on reduced body weight gains in F0 and F1 generations at 250 mg/kg bw/day (HERA, 2009; CIR 2012).

In an oral developmental toxicity study, C12EO6 was administered in the diet of female rabbits at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg bw/day from gestation days 2 to 16. Ataxia and a slight decrease in body weight were observed at =100  mg/kg bw/day. Nine rabbits in the control group and 31 in the treatment groups died during the study (details not available). There were no treatment related effects on corpora lutea, implantations, number of live foetuses and spontaneous abortions. No further information was available on live birth index, pup growth or developmental NOAEL. The NOAEL for maternal toxicity was reported at the lowest dose tested, i.e. 50 mg/kg bw/day (HERA, 2009; CIR, 2012).

In a dermal 2-generation study, C9–11EO6 (CAS No. 68439-46-3) was applied to Fischer 344 rats (30/sex/group, at doses of 0, 10, 100 or 250 mg/kg bw/day, 3 times/week except mating periods). No effects were reported on mating, fertility or mean gestational length in both generations. No treatment-related effects on testicular weights or sperm counts were observed. There were no effects on F1 and F2 litter size, number of live pups or sex ratio.  The NOAEL for reproductive and developmental toxicity was established as 250 mg/kg bw/day (HERA 2009; CIR, 2012).

In 2 other dermal studies, the NOAEL values for developmental and teratogenicity of C12EO4 were reported at >240–300 mg/kg bw/day for rats and rabbits, respectively (HERA, 2009).

Although certain short chain EGEs such as 2-ethoxyethanol (ethylene glycol ethyl ether, EGEE, CAS No. 110-80-5) are known reproductive toxicants, the ability of these glycol ethers to cause testicular atrophy decreases with increasing alkyl chain length, with effects not observed with chain lengths =C3 (OECD, 2004; ECETOC, 2005). In addition, no effects on reproductive organs were observed in several repeated dose toxicity studies (refer to the Repeated dose toxicity section above).

Critical Health Effects

The critical human health effects of the AEs for risk characterisation are acute oral toxicity and skin and eye irritation. The irritant effects are similar to those caused by other surfactants. The severity of irritation appears to increase directly with the chemical concentration. Skin irritation, but not eye irritation, generally decreases with an increasing degrees of ethoxylation.

Public Risk Characterisation

Although Australian use data are not available for all chemicals in the group, some have reported cosmetics and domestic uses in cleaning and washing products. International use data suggest widespread and repeated exposure of the public to these chemicals through the use of rinse-off and leave-on cosmetics and domestic products. Therefore, widespread public exposure is also expected in Australia, mainly involving exposure via the skin and eyes. Incidental inhalation (from aerosolised or powder products) and ingestion can also occur.

Considering the wide range of domestic products containing these chemicals, there is a possibility of public exposure to the chemicals through secondary exposure via the environment. However, this indirect human exposure is considered to be at very diluted concentrations; and hence, it not considered comparable to direct exposure.

A quantitative risk assessment of consumer cleaning products containing the chemicals concluded that these chemicals are not of any significant systemic human health concern (HERA, 2009). The margin of exposure calculated was based on the worst-case scenario and large enough to account for any uncertainties or inter- and intra-species extrapolation.

The CIR Expert Panel (CIR, 2016) indicated that up to 95–99 % of the droplets and/or particles (aerodynamic diameters >10 µm) released from cosmetic sprays containing these surfactant chemicals are not expected to be respirable into the gas exchange region of the lung, but likely to deposit in the nasopharyngeal and bronchial regions and subsequently undergo elimination. Aerosol uses leading to inhalation of smaller droplets are not expected for the chemicals in this group.

The Panel (CIR, 2012) determined that cosmetic use concentrations of the alcohol ethoxylates are safe when formulated to be non-irritating. However, skin, eye and respiratory irritant effects on exposure could occur with some of the chemicals within the group at high concentrations and/or eye irritation from accidental eye contact cannot be ruled out for some known use concentrations.

Chemicals in this group are synthesised through processes that might result in 1,4-dioxane as a residual by-product. The concentration of 1,4-dioxane (listed under dioxane) is controlled through the Poisons Standard (Schedule 6), with schedule labelling requirements applying at above 100 ppm (Appendix G; SUSMP October 2019).

The available data for some of the chemicals can be extrapolated to support the safety of all the chemicals in this group. Taking into consideration the current use concentrations and existing restrictions described above, the chemicals are not considered to pose an unreasonable risk to public health when used at low concentrations or when formulated to be non-irritating.

The total surfactant concentration in the products should be considered when determining label instructions, especially where direct dermal and ocular exposures are likely to occur, or when packaging presents the possibility of incidental inhalation or ingestion. Any irritant effects can be mitigated by labelling (such as warning statement—If in eyes wash out immediately with water etc.) and concentration controls. Any controls for these chemicals should be considered as part of a broader review of the management of surfactants in the SUSMP.

Occupational Risk Characterisation

During product formulation, oral, dermal, ocular and inhalation exposure of workers to the chemicals may occur, particularly where manual or open processes are used. These may include transfer and blending activities, quality control analysis, and cleaning and maintenance of equipment. Worker exposure to the chemicals at higher concentrations is expected. The level and route of exposure will vary depending on the method of application and work practices employed.

Given the critical systemic acute and local health effects, the chemicals could pose an unreasonable risk to workers unless adequate control measures to minimise relevant exposure are implemented. Good hygiene practices to minimise oral exposure are expected to be in place.

The chemicals should be appropriately classified and labelled to ensure that a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) at a workplace (such as an employer) has adequate information to determine appropriate controls.

The data available support an amendment to the hazard classification in the HCIS (Safe Work Australia) (refer to the Recommendation section).

NICNAS Recommendation

Further risk management is required. Sufficient information is available to recommend that risks to public health and safety from the potential use of the chemicals in cosmetics and/or domestic products be managed through changes to the Poisons Standard in the broader context of total surfactants, and risks for workplace health and safety be managed through changes to classification and labelling under HCIS. It is recommended that the chemicals be considered as part of a broader review of the management of surfactants in the SUSMP.

The assessment of these chemicals is considered to be sufficient provided that risk management recommendations are implemented and all requirements are met under workplace health and safety and poisons legislation as adopted by the relevant state or territory.

Public Health

The public can be exposed to the chemicals through their presence in domestic (such as laundry and cleaning) or cosmetic products. However, the chemicals are not expected to be contact sensitisers or to be irritating at low concentrations. There is potential for dermal, ocular and respiratory irritation to occur from use of these chemicals at higher concentrations depending on the use pattern.

A different class of surfactant chemicals (such as sodium lauryl sulfate and its salts) are listed in Schedule 6 of the Poisons Standard.

No specific regulatory controls are recommended for the chemicals in this group as part of this assessment. NICNAS recommends that formulators of products containing these chemicals should take into account the total surfactant concentration in the products when determining label instructions, especially where direct dermal and ocular exposures are likely to occur, or when packaging presents the possibility of incidental inhalation or ingestion. Any irritant effects can be mitigated by labelling (such as warning statement—If in eyes wash out immediately with water etc.) and concentration controls. Any controls for these chemicals should be considered as part of a broader review of the management of surfactants in the SUSMP.

Work Health and Safety

Unless data for a specific chemical are available, the critical health effects cannot be ruled out for any chemical as they can be formulated with variable degree of ethoxylation and alkyl chain lengths. Chemicals with the same generic CAS number may include a range of ethoxylation degrees which may affect the toxicological properties.

The chemicals are recommended for classification and labelling aligned with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) as below, unless data for a specific chemical are available to indicate lower toxicity.

The recommended classification and labelling entry should have the following note appended for the majority of chemicals 'Note 10 (The chemical is a substance of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction product, or biological material (UVCB). The hazards of the chemical may depend on the composition. For more information refer to the assessment report published on the website of the National Industrial Chemical Notification and Assessment Scheme.)'

This assessment does not consider classification of physical hazards and environmental hazards.

From 1 January 2017, under the model Work Health and Safety Regulations, chemicals are no longer to be classified under the Approved Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Substances system.

Hazard Approved Criteria (HSIS)a GHS Classification (HCIS)b
Acute Toxicity Not Applicable Harmful if swallowed - Cat. 4 (H302)
Irritation / Corrosivity Not Applicable Causes serious eye damage - Cat. 1 (H318) Causes skin irritation - Cat. 2 (H315)

a Approved Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Substances [NOHSC:1008(2004)].

b Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) United Nations, 2009. Third Edition.

* Existing Hazard Classification. No change recommended to this classification

Advice for consumers

Products containing the chemical should be used according to label instructions.

Advice for industry

Control measures

Control measures to minimise the risk from oral, dermal, ocular, and inhalation exposure to the chemicals should be implemented in accordance with the hierarchy of controls. Approaches to minimise risk include substitution, isolation and engineering controls. Measures required to eliminate or minimise risk arising from storing, handling and using a hazardous chemical depend on the physical form and the manner in which the chemical is used. Examples of control measures which may minimise the risk include, but are not limited to:

  • using closed systems or isolating operations;
  • minimising manual processes and work tasks through automating processes;
  • work procedures that minimise splashes and spills;
  • regularly cleaning equipment and work areas; and
  • using protective equipment that is designed, constructed, and operated to ensure that the worker does not come into contact with the chemicals.

Guidance on managing risks from hazardous chemicals are provided in the Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace—Code of Practice available on the Safe Work Australia website.

Personal protective equipment should not solely be relied upon to control risk and should only be used when all other reasonably practicable control measures do not eliminate or sufficiently minimise risk. Guidance in selecting personal protective equipment can be obtained from Australian, Australian/New Zealand or other approved standards.

Obligations under workplace health and safety legislation

Information in this report should be taken into account to assist with meeting obligations under workplace health and safety legislation as adopted by the relevant state or territory. This includes, but is not limited to:

  • ensuring that hazardous chemicals are correctly classified and labelled;
  • ensuring that (material) safety data sheets ((m)SDS) containing accurate information about the hazards (relating to both health hazards and physicochemical (physical) hazards) of the chemical are prepared; and
  • managing risks arising from storing, handling and using a hazardous chemical.

Your work health and safety regulator should be contacted for information on the work health and safety laws in your jurisdiction.

Information on how to prepare an (m)SDS and how to label containers of hazardous chemicals are provided in relevant codes of practice such as the Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals— Code of Practice and Labelling of Workplace Hazardous Chemicals—Code of Practice, respectively. These codes of practice are available from the Safe Work

Australia website.

A review of the physical hazards of the chemical has not been undertaken as part of this assessment.

References

CosIng (Cosmetic Ingredients & Substances) Database. European Commission. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/cosmetics/cosing_en

Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) 2012. Review Expert Panel. Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics. International Journal of Toxicology 31(suppl 2):169S–244S

Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) 2016. Review Expert Panel. Safety assessment of alkyl PEG/PPG ethers as used in cosmetics. International Journal of Toxicology 35 (suppl 1):60S–89S

European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 2005. Technical Report No 95. The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man, 4th edn, Vol 1. Accessed April 2019 at http://www.ecetoc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/ECETOC-TR-095-Vol-I.pdf

Galleria Chemica. Accessed October 2018 at http://jr.chemwatch.net/galleria/

Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) United Nations 2009. Third edition. Accessed November 2019 at http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev03/03files_e.html

Human& Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA) 2009. Alcohol ethoxylates as ingredients of European household cleaning products. Accessed November 2019 at http://www.heraproject.com

Lindner GJ 2010. Chemical Clustering for Risk Assessment: Fatty Alcohol Alkoxylates. Journal of ASTM International 7:1–12. doi:10.1520/JAI102874

National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNASa). Inventory Multi-tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP) Human Health Tier II assessment for alkoxylates of aliphatic alcohols (>C6). Australian Government Department of Health. Available at www.nicnas.gov.au

National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNASb). Inventory Multi-tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP) Human Health Tier II assessment for propoxylates of aliphatic alcohols (>C6). Australian Government Department of Health. Available at www.nicnas.gov.au

National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNASc). Inventory Multi-tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP) Human Health Tier II assessment for ethanol, 2-(hexyloxy)- (CAS No. 112-25-4). Australian Government Department of Health. Available at www.nicnas.gov.au

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2014. Guidance on grouping of chemicals, 2nd edn. Series on Testing& Assessment No. 194. Accessed November 2019 at http://www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/risk-assessment/groupingofchemicalschemicalcategoriesandread-across.htm

Personal Care Products Council. International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI) Dictionary and Handbook. Available at http://gov.personalcarecouncil.org/jsp/gov/GovHomePage.jsp

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHa). Registration dossier for 2-(2-hexyloxyethoxy)ethanol, CAS No. 112-59-4. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHb). Registration dossier for dodecan-1-ol, ethoxylated, CAS No. 9002-92-0. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHc). Registration dossier for isotridecanol, ethoxylated, CAS No. 69011-36-5. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHd). Registration dossier for tetradecan- l-ol, ethoxylated, CAS No. 27306-79-2. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHe). Registration dossier for octadecan-1-ol, ethoxylated, CAS No. 9005-00-9. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHf). Registration dossier for alcohols, secondary C11-15, ethoxylated, CAS No. 68131-40-8. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHg). Registration dossier for alcohols, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., ethoxylated, CAS No. 68920-66-1. Accessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACHh). Registration dossier for alcohols, C9-11, branched and linear, ethoxylated, CAS No. 68439-46-3. Assessed October 2018 at https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals

Safe Work Australia. Hazardous Chemical Information System (HCIS). Accessed November 2019 at http://hcis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/

Substances in Preparations in Nordic countries (SPIN) database. Accessed March 2019 at http://www.spin2000.net/spinmyphp/

The Poisons Standard October 2019. The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) No. 25. Accessed November 2019 at https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/poisons-standard-susmp

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) 2010. TSCA New Chemicals Program (NCP) Chemical Categories. Washington DC, USA. Accessed November 2019 at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-10/documents/ncp_chemical_categories_august_2010_version_0.pdf

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Last Update 28 June 2019

Chemical Identities

Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Ethanol, 2-[2-(hexyloxy)ethoxy]-
diethylene glycol hexyl ether
n-hexyl carbitol


CAS Number 112-59-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C10H22O3
Molecular Weight 190.3
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Ethanol, 2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]-
lauryl alcohol, mono(oxyethylene) ethanol
laureth-2
diethylene glycol dodecyl ether

CAS Number 3055-93-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C16H34O3
Molecular Weight 274.4
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Ethanol, 2-[2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]-
laureth-3
lauryl alcohol, di(oxyethylene) ethanol
laureth-3 oxyethylene ether

CAS Number 3055-94-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C18H38O4
Molecular Weight 318.5
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms 3,6,9,12,15-Pentaoxaheptacosan-1-ol
lauryl alcohol, tetra(oxyethylene) ethanol
pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether


CAS Number 3055-95-6
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C22H46O6
Molecular Weight 406.6
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol
laureth-7
lauryl alcohol, hexa(oxyethylene) ethanol
polyethylene glycol (7) lauryl ether

CAS Number 3055-97-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C26H54O8
Molecular Weight 494.7
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Ethanol, 2-(dodecyloxy)-
lauryl alcohol, oxyethanol
PEG-1 lauryl ether


CAS Number 4536-30-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C14H30O2
Molecular Weight 230.4
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms 3,6,9,12-Tetraoxatetracosan-1-ol
polyoxyethylene(4) lauryl ether



CAS Number 5274-68-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula C20H42O5
Molecular Weight 362.5
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-9-octadecenyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
glycols, polyethylene, mono-9-octadecenyl ether
oleth-16
polyoxyethylene (16) oleyl ether

CAS Number 25190-05-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H36O
Molecular Weight 312.5
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, mixture with .alpha.-octadecyl-.omega.-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-octadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, mixture containing



CAS Number 8065-80-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H38O.(C2H4O)nC16H34O
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl ), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, mixture with (Z)-.alpha.-9-octadecenyl-.omega.-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
Oleyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol adduct with ethylene oxide



CAS Number 8065-81-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H36O.(C2H4O)nC16H34O
Molecular Weight
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-dodecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
dodecyl alcohol, monoether with polyethylene glycol
ethoxylated lauryl alcohol
glycols, polyethylene monododecyl ether
laureth-11
laureth-13
CAS Number 9002-92-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC12H26O
Molecular Weight 230.4
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
1-hexadecanol, compound with oxirane (1:1)
1-hexadecanol, ethylene oxide polymer
1-hexadecanol, polymer with oxirane
cetyl alcohol, ethoxylated
ethoxylated cetyl alcohol
CAS Number 9004-95-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC16H34O
Molecular Weight 1123.5
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-(9Z)-9-octadecen-1-yl-.omega.-hydroxy-
9-octadecen-1-ol, (Z)-, compound with oxirane (1:1)
9-octadecen-1-ol, monoether with polyethylene glycol, (Z)-
glycols, polyethylene, mono-9-octadecenyl ether, (Z)-
oleyl alcohol, ethoxylated
polyoxyethylated oleyl alcohol
CAS Number 9004-98-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H36O
Molecular Weight 312.5
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-octadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
1-octadecanol, compound with oxirane (1:1)
polyoxyethylated stearyl alcohol
steareth-10
steareth-100
steareth-11
CAS Number 9005-00-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H38O
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isotridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
polyethylene glycol, isotridecyl ether
polyethylene glycol monoisotridecyl ether


CAS Number 9043-30-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC13H28O
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-hexyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
.alpha.-hexyl-.omega.-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
hexyl poly(oxyethylene) ether
hexyl alcohol, ethoxylated

CAS Number 31726-34-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC6H14O
Molecular Weight 146.2
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
ethoxylated tridecyl alcohol
trideceth-10
trideceth-11
trideceth-12
trideceth-15
CAS Number 24938-91-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC13H28O
Molecular Weight 244.4
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-decyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
decyl alcohol, ethoxylated
alpha-decyl-omega-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)


CAS Number 26183-52-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC10H22O
Molecular Weight 202.3
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-(2-ethylhexyl)-.omega.-hydroxy-
polyethylene glycol, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ether



CAS Number 26468-86-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC8H18O
Molecular Weight 174.3
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-octyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
octyl alcohol, ethoxylated
polyethylene glycol monooctyl ether


CAS Number 27252-75-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC8H18O
Molecular Weight 174.3
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tetradecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
ethoxylated tetradecyl alcohol
myristyl alcohol, ethoxylated


CAS Number 27306-79-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC14H30O
Molecular Weight 258.4
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms 1-Octadecanol, polymer with ethylene oxide




CAS Number 31943-12-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C18H38O.C2H4O)x
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-(2-octyldodecyl)-omega-hydroxy-
octyldodeceth-10
polyethylene glycol (10) octyldodecyl ether


CAS Number 32128-65-7
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)n C20H42O
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohol, straight chain, modified polyethoxylate
triton DF 12



CAS Number 37281-47-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms 9-Octadecen-1-ol, (Z)-, polymer with oxirane
oleyl alcohol, ethylene oxide condensation products



CAS Number 37702-39-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C18H36O.C2H4O)x
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-nonyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
nonyl alcohol, ethoxylated
noneth-3


CAS Number 39587-22-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC9H20O
Molecular Weight 188.3
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isooctadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
PEG-10 isostearyl ether
alpha-isooctadecyl-omega-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
arosurf

CAS Number 52292-17-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC18H38O
Molecular Weight 358.6
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isooctyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
polyethylene glycol monoisooctyl ether



CAS Number 61723-78-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC8H18O
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated
(C6-12) alkylcarboxylic acid, ethoxylated



CAS Number 68439-45-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C9-11, ethoxylated
(C9-11) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68439-46-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C16-18, ethoxylated
(C16-18) liphatic alcohol, ethoxylated
(C16-18) fatty alcohol, ethylene oxide reaction products
ceteareth
cetostearyl alcohol, ethoxylated
CAS Number 68439-49-6
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-14, ethoxylated
Linear C12- and C14-alkyl alcohols, ethoxylated



CAS Number 68439-50-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C11-13-branched, ethoxylated
(C11-13) branched alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68439-54-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, coco, ethoxylated
coconut oil alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 61791-13-7
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, tallow, ethoxylated
tallow alcohols, ethoxylated



CAS Number 61791-28-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isodecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
polyethylene glycol isodecyl ether
polyoxyethylene, isodecyl ether
a-isodecyl-?-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)
ethoxylated isodecyl alcohol
isodecanol, ethoxylated
CAS Number 61827-42-7
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC10H22O
Molecular Weight 202.34
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C13-15, ethoxylated




CAS Number 64425-86-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-13, ethoxylated
polyethylene glycol, C12-13-alkyl ether



CAS Number 66455-14-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C10-14, ethoxylated
(C10-14) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 66455-15-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C16-22, ethoxylated
(C16-22) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 69227-20-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C10-12, ethoxylated
(C10-12) alkyl alcohol, saturated, linear, ethoxylated



CAS Number 67254-71-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C10-16, ethoxylated
(C10-16) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68002-97-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-15, ethoxylated
linear C12-15-primary alcohol, ethoxylate
ethoxylated alcohols (C=12-15)
oxoalcohol C12-15,ethoxylated
alcohols, C12-15-alkyl, ethoxylated
genapol OX
CAS Number 68131-39-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C11-15-secondary, ethoxylated
linear C11-15-secondary alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68131-40-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C16 and C18-unsaturated, ethoxylated
(C16-18-unsaturated) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68155-01-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-18, ethoxylated
ethoxylated alcohols (C=12-18)
alcohols C12-18,ethoxylated
alcohols, C12-18, ethoxylated, fatty
poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), a-(C12-C18) alkyl-?-hydroxy-
C12-18 alkyl alcohol ethoxylate
CAS Number 68213-23-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-20, ethoxylated
polyethoxylated C12-20-alcohols



CAS Number 68526-94-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-16, ethoxylated
polyethylene glycol, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl ether



CAS Number 68551-12-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C>30, ethoxylated




CAS Number 97953-22-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated, ethoxylated
C16-C18) and (C18) unsaturated alkylalcohol, ethoxylate



CAS Number 68920-66-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C7-21, ethoxylated
ethoxylated alcohols (C7-21)



CAS Number 68991-48-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-tridecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-, branched
branched tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 69011-36-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C8-22, ethoxylated
linear C8-22-alkyl alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 69013-19-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C6-10, ethoxylated




CAS Number 70879-83-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C8-10, ethoxylated
(C8-10) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 71060-57-6
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C8-16, ethoxylated
(C8-16) alkyl alcohol, ethoxylated



CAS Number 71243-46-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C9-11-iso-, C10 rich, ethoxylated
ethoxylated branched C9-11, C10 rich alcohols



CAS Number 78330-20-8
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C11-14-iso-, C13 rich, ethoxylated
ethoxylated branched C11-14, C13 rich alcohols



CAS Number 78330-21-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-C14-secondary, ethoxylated




CAS Number 84133-50-6
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C10-18, ethoxylated




CAS Number 85422-93-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-20 and C12-20-unsaturated, ethoxylated




CAS Number 106232-81-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C16-20, ethoxylated




CAS Number 106232-82-0
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear, ethoxylated




CAS Number 106232-83-1
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C18-22-alkyl, ethoxylated




CAS Number 116810-32-3
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C14-15-branched and linear, ethoxylated




CAS Number 120944-68-5
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C10-12-secondary, ethoxylated




CAS Number 125736-52-9
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Alcohols, C14-18 and C16-18-unsaturated, ethoxylated




CAS Number 126646-02-4
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-undecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-,branched and linear
alcohols, C11, branched and linear, ethoxylated



CAS Number 127036-24-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula Unspecified
Molecular Weight Unspecified
Chemical Name in the Inventory and Synonyms Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-isohexadecyl-.omega.-hydroxy-
Isoceteth-20



CAS Number 69364-63-2
Structural Formula
Molecular Formula (C2H4O)nC16H34O
Molecular Weight