Formaldehyde in embalming
Last update 1 December 2006
CAS No: 50-00-0
A report on formaldehyde by the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS)—published in 2006—identified embalmers as workers at risk of experiencing health effects from the chemical. This page summarises the main findings of the report and recommendations relevant to embalmers.
Formaldehyde is present as a dissolved gas in the water-based solution called formalin, in concentrations from 37% to 54%. Formalin is used during embalming processes as a disinfectant and preservative. It is used as an injection fluid in arterial and cavity embalming, and in surface embalming as a fluid for soaking surface packs or a gel applied to the skin or internal surfaces. Paraformaldehyde, a powdered polymer form of formaldehyde, is also sometimes used in embalming processes.
- Formaldehyde is toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and by swallowing.
- Formaldehyde solutions readily give off formaldehyde gas, which has a pungent odour.
- Formaldehyde levels during embalming can be high, up to 4 parts per million (ppm), with average levels greater than 0.5 ppm. The level of 0.5 ppm is the level at which humans are known to start experiencing discomfort.
- Effective ventilation is an essential workplace control measure for embalmers.
- Breathing formaldehyde vapour can result in irritation of nerves in the eyes and nose, which may cause burning, stinging or itching sensations, a sore throat, watery eyes, blocked sinuses, runny nose, and sneezing.
- Skin contact with formaldehyde solution or paraformaldehyde can cause skin rashes and allergic skin reactions. For the individual allergic to formaldehyde, even very low levels of formaldehyde are likely to cause skin reactions. Splashes into the eyes can cause irritation, corrosion of the cornea, and possibly blindness.
- Formaldehyde has been shown to cause nasal cancers in animals at levels not found in the majority of workplaces.
- Manual handling processes in embalming increase the risk of spills and splashes and greater skin contact with formaldehyde.
- Formaldehyde is a highly reactive, flammable gas and can form explosive mixtures in air. It presents a fire hazard when exposed to flame or heat. Formaldehyde solutions can be flammable when formaldehyde or methanol concentrations are high.
- Formaldehyde is incompatible with many chemicals and can react, sometimes violently, with some chemicals, including strong oxidisers (e.g. bleach) and acids.
- Read the supplier's (Material) Safety Data Sheet before using formaldehyde products.
- Replace high concentration formaldehyde products with low concentrations or less hazardous products, wherever possible.
- Avoid having to dilute formaldehyde products by buying products with concentrations of formaldehyde appropriate for the intended use.
- Ensure that a ventilation system (e.g. local exhaust ventilation) is in place and is effective at maintaining exposure levels below the occupational exposure standard.
- Embalmers should pay particular attention to the type of personal protective equipment (PPE) used during embalming. It is important to follow relevant Australian Standards and/or guidance from manufacturers in the selection and use of personal protective equipment. Respirators with organic vapour cartridges should be used in situations where formaldehyde levels above the national occupational exposure standard may be encountered and where other measures (such as ventilation) alone are insufficient to control the level of exposure.
- Avoid spraying and brushing of formaldehyde products. Only spray formaldehyde where necessary if adequate engineering and personal protective controls are in place.
- Where the workplace risk assessment indicates a significant risk of exposure by inhalation, employers should conduct periodic air monitoring to ensure that levels are below the occupational exposure standard.
- Store formaldehyde products in accordance with the National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Workplace Dangerous Goods and the National Code of Practice for the Storage and Handling of Workplace Dangerous Goods.
First aid for formaldehyde exposure
Inhaled—If inhaled, remove from contaminated area. Apply artificial respiration if not breathing.
Eye—In case of eye contact, hold eyelids apart and flush they eye continuously with running water. Continue flushing until advised to stop by Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or at least for 15 minutes.
Skin—If skin or hair contact occurs, remove contaminated clothing and flush skin and hair with running water.
Swallowed—If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting
First Aid facilities—Ensure eye bath and safety showers are available and ready for use. For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre (131 126) or a doctor at once.
Occupational exposure standard
The current national occupational exposure standard for formaldehyde is 1 ppm 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) and 2 ppm short-term exposure limit (STEL). The NICNAS report recommends that the occupational exposure standard be lowered to 0.3 ppm 8-hour TWA and 0.6 ppm STEL. Formaldehyde has been shown to cause nasal cancers in animals at levels not found in the majority of workplaces.
The basis for lowering the current exposure standard is sensory irritation. The recommended exposure standards not only provide adequate protection against discomfort of sensory irritation, but also provide a high level of protection against cancer. The recommended standard is being considered by the Office of the Australian Safety and Compensation Council, the agency responsible for setting national occupational exposure standards.
Workplace hazardous substances regulations
Workplace health and safety regulations exist in each state or territory for hazardous substances. These regulations place duties on people including employers, suppliers, manufacturers in relation to hazardous substances used in the workplace. You should refer to the occupational health and safety authority in your particular state or territory to find out what the specific requirements are. Contact details are as follows:
Level 3, Block B, Callam Offices
Easty Street, WODEN ACT 2606
Phone: 02 6205 0200, Fax: 02 6205 0336
Northern Territory Worksafe
GPO Box 4821 DARWIN NT 0801
Phone: 08 8999 5545
WorkCover Authority of NSW
92-100 Donnison Street, GOSFORD NSW 2250
02 4321 5000
WorkCover Assistance Service – 13 10 50
Hours: 8:30am- 5:00pm Monday to Friday
Queensland Department of Employment and Industrial Relations
PO Box 820 LUTWYCHE QLD 4030
Workplace Health and Safety
Infoline 1300 369 915
Level 3, 1 Richmond Road, KESWICK SA 5035
Phone: 08 8303 0400 or 1300 365 255 Fax: 08 8303 0277
Workplace Standards Tasmania
PO Box 56
ROSNY PARK , TAS, 7018
Phone: 03 6233 7657 (Outside Tasmania)
Local rate: 1300 366 322 (Inside Tasmania)
Fax: 03 6233 8338
Victorian WorkCover Authority Advisory Service
GPO Box 4306 MELBOURNE VIC 3001
1800 136 089 or 03 9641 1444
Western Australian Department of Consumer and Employment Protection
1260 Hay Street, PERTH, WA, 6005
Worksafe Division – 1300 30 78 77
More information can be found in the Safety Data Sheet available from the supplier.
A comprehensive source of information is the detailed assessment of formaldehyde published on the NICNAS website.
NICNAS (2006) Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 28: Formaldehyde. Sydney, National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme.
NOHSC (2001) Storage and Handling of Workplace Dangerous Goods: National Standard [NOHSC:1015(2001)]. Sydney, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission.
NOHSC (2001) Storage and Handling of Workplace Dangerous Goods: National Code of Practice [NOHSC:2017(2001)]. Sydney, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission.
Summary of formaldehyde PEC report.
Please note, our recommendations are not always implemented by chemical regulators. For the most up-to-date information about how a particular chemical is regulated in your State or Territory you will need to contact other government agencies. Read What we do for details about our regulatory partners.